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Babingtonite

Luster is vitreous.
Transparency: Crystals are generally opaque but thin crystals or splinters can be translucent.
Crystal System is triclinic; bar 1
Crystal Habits include short stocky prismatic crystals or tabular to platy forms.
Cleavage is good in one direction and perfect in another, these are pinacoidal but are at near right angles to each other forming rectangular prisms.
Fracture is uneven to subconchoidal.
Specific Gravity is approximately 3.3 (somewhat above average for translucent minerals)
Streak is brown to gray.
Associated Minerals are quartz, apophyllite, feldspars, heulandite, stilbite, scolecite and other zeolites.
Other Characteristics: weakly magnetic.
Notable Occurrences include Poona, India; Devon, England; Baveno, Italy and several locations in Massachusetts.
Best Field Indicators are crystal habit, color, associations with zeolites and luster.

Colors: black to dark green
Hardness: 5


Bakerite

Luster is vitreous as crystals; dull to sub-vitreous (porcelaneous) for nodules and masses.
Transparency crystals are opaque to translucent. v Crystal System is monoclinic; 2/m
Crystal Habits include prismatic, slanted (pseudo-rhombohedral) crystals and cauliflower-like nodules and compact masses.
Cleavage is absent.
Fracture is conchoidal to uneven.
Specific Gravity is approximately 2.9 (average)
Streak is white.
Other Characteristics: Is non-fluorescent.
Associated Minerals include celestite and other minerals in altered volcanic rocks.
Notable Occurrences include the type locality at Furnace Creek, Death Valley, Inyo County and at the Sterling Borax Mine in Tick Canyon, Los Angeles County, California, USA.
Best Field Indicators are locality, nodular character, hardness and non-fluorescence

Colors: white, colorless or gray
Hardness: 4.5


Baratovite

Luster is pearly.
Transparency crystals are transparent to translucent.
Crystal System is monoclinic (pseudo-hexagonal); 2/m
Crystal Habits include flattened pseudohexagonal crystals also massive and lamellar.
Cleavage: perfect in one direction.
Fracture: uneven
Specific Gravity is approximately 2.9 (average)
Streak is white.
Other Characteristics: fluoresces brilliant blue under UV light.
Associated Minerals include aegerine, misterite and other rare silicates.
Notable Occurrences include Dara-Pioz, Tien-Shan Mountains, Tadzhikistan.
Best Field Indicators are crystal habit, fluorescence, cleavage, associations and locality.

Colors: white with pinkish tints
Hardness: 3.5


Barite

Barite is used to enhance loyalty, harmony, intermission, relationships, motivation.
Barite is also used in dream work.
Physically, Barite is used to cleanse toxins from the system and to soothe a nervous stomach.
It is also helpful when dealing with addictions.
Blue Barite is used to stimulate conversation as well as bringing courage and comfort when speaking in front of large groups of people.

Luster is vitreous.
Transparency crystals are transparent to translucent.
Crystal System is orthorhombic; 2/m 2/m 2/m
Crystal Habits include the bladed crystals that are dominated by two large pinacoid faces top and bottom and small prism faces forming a jutting angle on every side.
There are many variations of these faces but the flattened blades and tabular crystals are the most common.
If the pinacoid faces become diminished or are absent, the resulting prismatic crystal has a rhombic cross section.
Also scaly, lamellar, and even fibrous.
Cleavage is perfect in one direction, less so in another direction.
Fracture is conchoidal.
Specific Gravity is approximately 4.5 (heavy for translucent minerals)
Streak is white.
Associated Minerals are numerous but significant associations have been with chalcopyrite, calcite, aragonite, sulfur, pyrite, quartz, vanadinite, cerussite and fluorite among many others.
Other Characteristics: green color in flame test (see above).
Notable Occurrences include Oklahoma, Connecticut and Colorado, USA; England and Germany.
Best Field Indicators are crystal habit, flame test and density

Colors: white, gray, yellow, blue, pink, greenish; a translucent form is also sometimes found
Hardness: 3 to 3.5


Bastnasite

Luster is pearly, vitreous, greasy to dull.
Transparency: Crystals are translucent to opaque.
Crystal System is hexagonal.
Crystal Habits include small hexagonal rounded flakes and short prismatic crystals, also in rosettes and spheres as well as massive and granular.
Bastnasite has been known to replace (pseudomorph) crystals of allanite.
Cleavage is distinct in one direction (basal) and poor in three directions (prismatic).
Fracture is uneven.
Specific Gravity is 4.7 to 5.0 (well above average)
Streak is white.
Associated Minerals are extensive and include albite, analcime, monazite, hematite, amphiboles, aegirine, rutile, rhodochrosite, ancylite-(Ce), calcite, apophyllite, cordylite, ashcroftine, fluorite, galena, donnayite, epididymite, apatite, serandite, zircon, elpidite, natrolite, pyrochlore, pyrophanite, astrophyllite, barite, brookite, leucophanite, lorenzenite, quartz, synchysite-(Ce), parisite, dolomite, strontianite, siderite and ankerite.
Notable Occurrences include the type locality at Bastnas Mine, Riddarhyttan, Vastmanland, Sweden as well as Fen, Norway; Bayan Obo, Mongolia; Kangankunde, Malawi; Kizilcaoren, Turkey; langesundsfjord area, Norway; Kola Peninsula, Russia; Mountain Pass, California, USA; Hungary; Greece; several sites in the Balkans; Mont Saint-Hilaire mines, Ontario and Thor Lake deposits, Northwest Territories, Canada.
Best Field Indicators: crystal habit, color, cleavage, density, luster and locality.

Colors: pale white, tan, gray, brown, yellow and pink
Hardness: 4 to 4.5


Baumhauerite

Luster is metallic to dull.
Transparency: Crystals are opaque.
Crystal System: Triclinic; bar 1.
Crystal Habits include prismatic striated crystals with rounded faces; also in massive and granular forms.
Cleavage: Indistinct.
Fracture: Conchoidal.
Specific Gravity is 5.3 (slightly heavier than average for metallic minerals)
Streak is dark brown.
Associated Minerals include dolomite, realgar and sartorite.
Notable Occurrences are limited to the type locality of the Lengenbach Quarry, Binnental, Valais, Switzerland and Franklin, New Jersey, USA.
Best Field Indicators are crystal habit, locality, internal reflections, associations and density.

Colors: bright lead gray, blue gray to gray black (internal reflections will flash a red color
Hardness: 3


Bayldonite

Luster is resinous.
Transparency: Crystals are transparent to translucent.
Crystal System is monoclinic.
Crystal Habits include tabular crystals, radiating fibrous, granular and massive crusts.
Cleavage is absent.
Fracture is uneven.
Hardness is 4.5
Specific Gravity is approximately 5.5 (well above average for translucent minerals).
Streak is green.
Associated Minerals are duftite, mimetite, quartz, bindheimite, cerussite, wulfenite, mimetite, azurite and limonite.
Notable Occurrences include Penberthy Croft Mine and Wheal Carpenter Mine, St. Hilary and St. Day, Cornwall, England; Arizona, USA and Tsumeb, Namibia.
Best Field Indicators are color, crystal habit, streak, lack of cleavage, density, locality and associations

Colors: green to yellow-green or yellow
Hardness: 4.5


Beudantite

Luster is vitreous, adamantine to greasy.
Transparency: Specimens are transparent to translucent.
Crystal System is trigonal: bar 3
Crystal Habits include blocky rhombohedrons, sometimes pseudo-cubic, and platy to tabular crystals. also as druses, crusts and earthy masses.
Cleavage is perfect in one direction (basal), but not usually seen.
Fracture is conchoidal.
Hardness is 4.
Specific Gravity is approximately 4.3 - 4.5 (heavy for non-metallic minerals).
Streak is greenish yellow.
Associated Minerals include mimetite, jarosite, conichalcite, anglesite, galena, sphalerite, arsenopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, descloizite, aegirine, hemimorphite, microcline, muscovite, arthurite, tetranatrolite and natrolite.
Notable Occurrences include Tsumeb, Namibia; Mont Saint-Hilaire, Quebec, Canada; several mines in Arizona, USA; laurion, Greece and Australia.
Best Field Indicators are crystal habit, density, color, streak, luster and hardness.

Colors: green, dark green, yellow-green, orange-brown, brown or black
Hardness: 4


Benitoite

Light to dark blue.
Is associated with emotional sensitivity, empathy and understanding.

Luster is vitreous.
Transparency: Crystals are transparent to translucent.
Crystal System is hexagonal; bar 6 m 2
Crystal Habits include the flattened six faced dipyramid that has a distinct triangle shape often modified by minor faces. Also found as small grains.
Cleavage is absent.
Fracture is irregular.
Specific Gravity is approximately 3.6 (above average) v Streak is white.
Other Characteristics: Nearly all specimens fluoresce blue under UV light.
Associated Minerals include serpentine, neptunite, natrolite, joaquinite, sanbornite, taramellite, albite and fresnoite.
Notable Occurrences include only the mines of San Benito County, California, USA for good excellent crystals. SW Texas produces tiny grains in eocene sands as well as some other California localities.
Best Field Indicators are crystal habit, fluorescence, color, associations and locality

Colors: blue, but also colorless and yellowish
Hardness: 6 to 6.5


Beraunite

Luster is vitreous.
Transparency: Specimens are translucent to transparent.
Crystal System is monoclinic.
Crystal Habits include acicular, tabular, encrusting or radiating fibrous crystals.
Cleavage is good.
Fracture is uneven.
Specific Gravity is approximately 2.9 (average).
Streak is yellow.
Associated Minerals include strengite, cacoxenite, strunzite, rockbridgeite and limonite.
Notable Occurrences include Cornwall, England; Ireland; Germany; Palermo Mine, New Hampshire and Pennington County, South Dakota, USA.
Best Field Indicators are crystal habit, color, associations, cleavage and streak.

Colors: yellow, brown, red, green or yellow
Hardness: 3 to 4


Berlinite

Luster is vitreous.
Transparency: Crystals are transparent to translucent.
Crystal System is trigonal; 3 2
Crystal Habits include granular masses and disseminated grains.
Cleavage is absent.
Fracture is conchoidal.
Specific Gravity is approximately 2.6 (average for translucent minerals)
Streak is white or gray.
Notable Occurrences include the Vestana iron mine, Nastum, Sweden.
Best Field Indicators are locality, color, absence of cleavage and hardness.

Colors: colorless, gray to pink or rose
Hardness: 6.5


Berthierite

Luster is metallic.
Transparency crystals are opaque.
Crystal System is orthorhombic; 2/m 2/m 2/m
Crystal Habits include acicular, fibrous or radiating crystals.
Cleavage is perfect in the lengthwise direction.
Fracture is uneven.
Specific Gravity is approximately 4.6+ (average for metallic minerals)
Streak is a dark brown.
Other Characteristics: Crystals are not flexible.
Associated Minerals include quartz, stibnite and other sulfides.
Notable Occurrences include France; Rumania; Colorado, USA; England and Germany.
Best Field Indicators are crystal habit, streak, softness and inflexibility of crystals.

Colors: brownish gray to dark brown
Hardness: 2.5 to 3


Bertrandite

Luster is vitreous to pearly.
Transparency: Crystals are transparent to translucent.
Crystal System is orthorhombic; m m 2.
Crystal Habits include tabular to platy crystals and some prismatic forms.
Often aggregates formed over crystals of beryl. Twinning is common. Pseudomorphs of bertrandite after beryl are also common.
Cleavage good in one direction lengthwise.
Fracture is uneven to conchoidal.
Specific Gravity is 3.3-3.5
Streak is white to gray.
Other Characteristics: Some specimens have fluoresced green under UV light.
Associated Minerals are numerous and include of course beryl as well as quartz, albite, orthoclase, fluorapatite, micas, anatase, brookite, pyrite, fresnoite, analcime, calcite and cheralite.
Notable Occurrences include the type locality of Petit-Port and Barbin, Nantes, Loire-Atlantique, France as well as Akca Tau and Kara-Oba, Kazakhstan; Zabytoe, Primorie, Russia; Spor Mountain and the Brush Beryllium Mine, Juab County, Utah; Harding Mine, New Mexico; Texas and Pala District, San Diego County, California, USA; China; Cornwall, England; Mongolia; Norway and Mexico.
Best Field Indicators include only one direction of cleavage, crystal habit, color, association with beryl and hardness.

Colors: colorless, white and pale yellow
Hardness: 6 to 7


Beryl

Beryl is used in healing and to promote energy.
Beryl has been used to bring on rain.
Beryl is great for energy work.
This stone can increase retention of information and is a very good study aid.

Luster is vitreous.
Transparency: Crystals are transparent to translucent.
Crystal System is hexagonal; 6/m 2/m 2/m
Crystal Habits typically include the hexagonal prism with pincoid terminations.
The terminations are often modified by many different pyramidal faces which can sometimes produce a rounded termination in the rough shape of a used pencil eraser.
Cleavage is imperfect in one direction (basal).
Fracture is conchoidal.
Specific Gravity is approximately 2.6 - 2.9 (average)
Streak is white.
Other Characteristics: Faces on large crystals are often pitted, striated lengthwise and rough.
Associated Minerals include micas, quartz, euclase, calcite, tourmalines and some feldspars.
Notable Occurrences include Colombia and some African localities for emerald; Brazil, Russia and Pakistan for aquamarine; California, Brazil, Africa, and many other localities for other beryls.
Best Field Indicators are crystal habit, lack of good cleavage, hardness and color.

Colors: colorless, golden yellow, yellow-green, white
Hardness: 7.5 to 8


Beryllium

Is associated with altered states, meditation and cosmic consciousness.

Beryllonite

Luster is vitreous.
Transparency: Specimens are transparent to translucent (especially when frosted).
Crystal System is monoclinic; 2/m
Crystal Habits include tabular to equant crystals as well as rosettes and masses.
Cleavage is good in one direction (basal), fair in several other directions.
Fracture is conchoidal.
Specific Gravity is approximately 2.8 (average for translucent minerals)
Streak is white.
Associated Minerals include quartz especially rose quartz, feldspars especially a variety of albite called cleavelandite, elbaite, beryl and columbite.
Notable Occurrences are limited to McKean Mt., Stoneham and Newry, Maine, USA; the Sapucaia pegmatite, Minas Gerais, Brazil and Paprok, Nuristan, Afghanistan.
Best Field Indicators are crystal habit, color, hardness and locality

Colors: colorless, white to pale yellow
Hardness: 5.5 to 6


Betafite

Luster is earthy to metallic and sometimes vitreous when translucent.
Transparency: Crystals are generally opaque but some translucent specimens are known.
Crystal System is isometric; 4/m bar 3 2/m
Crystal Habits typically include octahedral and dodecahedral crystals that are often modified by other isometric forms and/or flattened when two opposing faces dominate the crystal; also found as granular and massive.
Some crystals can be quite large and can weigh up to and slightly over 100 kg.
Cleavage is absent.
Fracture is conchoidal.
Specific Gravity is approximately 3.7 - 5.0 (heavy for non-metallic, average for metallic minerals).
Extreme variation caused by variable composition of component metals.
Streak is yellow to brown.
Other Characteristics: Slightly radioactive and crystals/specimens are often coated with a yellow or green earthy coating.
Associated Minerals include quartz, feldspars, columbite, tantalite, zircon, biotite, thorite, allanite, fergusonite and other rare earth minerals.
Notable Occurrences include Betafo (hence the name), Malagasy Republic, Madagascar; Silver Crater Mine, Bancroft, Ontario, Canada and less noteworthy sites in Russia; Spain; Peru; Pakistan; India; China; Norway and Brazil as well as California, Arizona, New Mexico and Colorado, USA.
Best Field Indicators are crystal habit, luster, fracture, color, radioactivity, associations, environment and specific gravity.

Colors: black with a tint of yellow, brown or green
Hardness: 4 to 5.5


Bideauxite

Luster is adamantine.
Transparency: Crystals are transparent to translucent.
Crystal System is isometric; 4/m bar 3 2/m.
Crystal Habits include cubic crystals that envelope boleite crystals and often completely replace them.
Cleavage is absent.
Fracture is uneven.
Specific Gravity is 6.3 (very heavy for translucent minerals)
Streak is white.
Other Characteristics: Index of refraction equals 2.192 (very high).
Associated Minerals include boleite, matlockite, cerussite, anglesite, leadhillite and galena.
Notable Occurrences include the type locality of Mammoth-St Anthony Mine, Tiger, Pinal County, Arizona, USA and Chile.
Best Field Indicators are crystal habit, color, density, luster, lack of cleavage and locality.

Colors: colorless, white, pale violet to lavender
Hardness: 3


Biotite

Biotite encourages detoxification of the body. Applied on the body is used to ease the pain caused by problems such as sciatica, rheumatism and gout.
It is particularly popular as a protective and energizing stone during childbirth.
Biotite reduces tension, stimulates the metabolism, and promotes the purification of the body.
It also encourages intuition and creativity.
It is helpful in the treatment of stress related disorders such as insomnia, depression, and melancholy.
Biotite disks and up all chakras.
They are particularly relaxing when placed on the navel chakra and the third eye.

Luster is vitreous to pearly.
Transparency crystals are transparent to translucent.
Crystal System is monoclinic; 2/m
Crystal Habits include tabular to prismatic crystals with a prominant pinacoid termination.
Biotite's four prism faces and two pinacoid faces form pseudo-hexagonal crystal "books".
The sides of the crystal often tend to tapper and can have a "hard candy that has been sucked on, look".
Also as lamellar or granular rock forming masses providing the luster for most schists and gneiss.
Cleavage is perfect in one direction producing thin sheets or flakes.
Fracture is not readily observed due to cleavage but is uneven.
Specific Gravity is approximately 2.9 - 3.4+ (slightly above average)
Streak is white.
Associated Minerals are quartz, feldspars, apatite, calcite, hornblende, garnets and schorl.
Other Characteristics: cleavage sheets are flexible and elastic, meaning they can be bent and will flex back to original shape.
Notable Occurrences include Bancroft and sudbury, Ontario; Sicily; Russia and many other localities around the world.
Best Field Indicators are crystal habit, color, cleavage, elastic sheets and associations.

Biotite is said to enhance one's perception, allowing one to more clearly understand what is really happening in any situation.

Colors: black with silver-gray mica
Hardness: 2 to 2.5


Bismuth

Luster is metallic.
Transparency: Crystals are opaque.
Crystal System is trigonal; bar 3 2/m
Crystal Habits include mostly massive foliated forms in natural specimens, although there do exist some well formed natural crystals they are rather scarce.
Laboratory grown crystals display trigonal hopper crystals that appear pseudocubic.
Cleavage is perfect in one direction (basal)
Fracture is uneven or jagged.
Specific Gravity is 9.7 - 9.8 (unusually heavy even for metallic minerals)
Streak is silver to white.
Other Characteristics: striations on cleavage surfaces.
Associated Minerals include bismuthinite and ores of cobalt and silver found in hydrothermal veins such as cobaltite and acanthite.
Notable Natural Occurrences include Australia; San Baldomero and La Paz, Bolivia; Devon, England; Germany and South Dakota, Colorado and California, USA.
Best Field Indicators are tarnish, density and cleavage. Hopper crystals in laboratory specimens are unmistakable.

Colors: silver white often with a multi-colored iridescent tarnish
Hardness: 2 to 2.5


Bismuthinite

Luster is metallic.
Transparency crystals are opaque.
Crystal System is orthorhombic; 2/m 2/m 2/m
Crystal Habits include radiating acicular to prismatic columnar crystals.
Sometimes in wonderful sprays that are similar to stibnite's crystal habits.
Also granular and massive.
Cleavage is perfect in one lengthwise direction.
Fracture is uneven.
Specific Gravity is approximately 6.8 - 7.2 (well above average for metallic minerals)
Streak is gray.
Other Characteristics: Thin crystals are slightly flexible, but inelastic.
There maybe a slight yellow or iridescent tarnish present.
Crystals are usually striated and have some sectility.
Associated Minerals are numerous and include gold, bismuth, bismutite, quartz, andradite, chrysoberyl, almandine, barite, scheelite, pyrophyllite, kettnerite, wulfenite, gadolinite, wolframite, beryl, epidote, microcline, pyrite, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, covellite and several other sulfides.
Notable Occurrences are many and include Cornwall, England; Bolivia; Australia; Temiscaming County, Quebec, Canada; Guanajuato, Mexico; Brazil; Kingsgate, New South Wales, Australia and some excellent locations in Vogtland and Siegerland, Germany. From the United States there are several localities in Haddam, Connecticut; Beaver County, Utah; Kern County, California; several counties in Arizona and in Boulder County, Colorado.
Best Field Indicators are crystal habit, density, tarnish, softness and flexibility.

Colors: steel gray to off-white
Hardness: 2


Bixbyite (Red Beryl)

Bixbite is known metaphysically as a stone of soothing and healing.
It is used by intuitive people and mystics to bring harmony to relationships and enhance compatibility.
It is also said to be helpful to heal grief and depression.
Bixbite is also used to strengthen creativity energy.
Physically, intuitive sources say that bixbite is good for healing problems with the physical heart, liver, lungs, mouth, throat, stomach, physical energy level, and digestive system.
Bixbite is related to the heart and sacral chakras.

Luster is metallic to submetallic.
Transparency crystals are opaque.
Crystal System is isometric; 2/m bar 3
Crystal Habits include cubes often with octahedral and dodecahedral faces modifying the corners.
Also as massive and granular.
Cleavage is octahedral.
Fracture is uneven.
Specific Gravity is 4.9 - 5.0 (slightly above average for metallic minerals)
Streak is black.
Associated Minerals include beryl, quartz, spessartine, hematite, pseudobrookite, hausmannite, braunite and topaz.
Notable Occurrences are limited to the Thomas Range, Utah; San Luis Potosi, Mexico; northern Patagonia, Argentina; Gerona, Spain; India; Sweden and South Africa.
Best Field Indicators are crystal habit, density, hardness, associations and locality.

Colors: dark black
Hardness: 6.5


Blizzard Stone

This stone helps protect the body's magnetic fields.

Blodite


Bloodstone

Bloodstone is a green chalcedony jasper flecked with red spots of iron oxide.
This is a stone of protection. It can open doors and break the bonds.
Bloodstone is the "hero's stone."
It instills courage.
Bloodstone is a healing stone, balancing the root, sacral, navel, and heart chakras and is used to purify the blood and increase life force energies.
This stone used to be called hematite a very long time ago.
Hematite can revitalize love, relationships, and friendships.

Boji Stones (Kansas Pop Rocks)

Boji Stones are an Iron-magnetite concretion.
They round grey/brown round disks that are high in iron.
These stones are used in grounding and have electromagnetic properties.
Boji Stones balance the body's energy field and sometimes they can reduce pain by holding one stone in each hand.
These stones recharge electrically in the sun..
Store Boji Stones apart from one another as their magnetism can neutralize them.
Rough "male" and smooth "female" stones both have positive and negative charges.

Boleite

Luster is vitreous to pearly.
Transparency: Crystals are usually translucent but some exceptional specimens are transparent.
Crystal System is tetragonal; 4 2 2
Crystal Habits include a pseudocubic habit due to penetration twinning of three individual "twins" oriented perdendicular to each other.
Often the crystal will appear to be modified by octahedron faces (actually pseudo-octahedral tetragonal dipyramids).
The cubes are rarely over half an inch on each side. Individual twinned crystals are common and are often found loose without any host matrix.
Cleavage is perfect in one direction. v Fracture is uneven and brittle.
Specific Gravity is 5+ (rather heavy for translucent minerals).
Streak is light greenish-blue.
Other Characteristics: Notches or interpenetrate angles can be seen in some specimens revealing their true twinned nature.
Associated Minerals include other rare copper and lead chlorides such as pseudoboleite, cumengite, chloroxiphite, paralaurionite, matlockite, chlorargyrite, bideauxite, atacamite, mendipite and diaboleite.
Also found with cerussite, smithsonite, leadhillite, linarite, phosgenite and chrysocolla.
Boleite crystals are often loose, but some are found in a clay matrix.
Notable Occurrences include Boleo, Santa Rosalia, Baja California, Mexico; Broken Hill, New South Wales, Australia; Mammoth District, Arizona, USA and Mendip Hills, Somerset, England.
Best Field Indicators are crystal habit, color, density, streak and locality

Colors: deep blue almost black to a lighter indigo blue
Hardness: 3 to 3.5


Boltwoodite

Luster is vitreous to silky or pearly.
Transparency: Crystals are transparent to translucent.
Crystal System: Monoclinic.
Crystal Habits are limited to crusts and tufts of fine acicular crystals often found on uranium bearing sandstones.
Specific Gravity is approximately 3.6 - 4.3 depending on the amount of water (above average for translucent minerals)
Streak is pale yellow.
Associated Minerals are uraninite and other primary uranium minerals.
Other Characteristics: Strongly radioactive.
Notable Occurrences are limited to Pick's Delta mine, San Rafael Swell, Emory Co., Utah and Coconino County, Arizona, USA.
Best Field Indicators are environment of formation, luster, color, locality and of course radioactivity.

Colors: yellow to pale yellow
Hardness: 3.5 to 4


Boracite

Luster is vitreous.
Transparency: Crystals are transparent to translucent.
Crystal System is orthorhombic; 2/m 2/m 2/m , isometric; 4/m bar 3 2/m at high temperatures.
Crystal Habits include highly modified cubes and octahedrons which are actually pseudomorphs of the high temperature isometric phase.
Also massive, fibrous, nodular and as embedded grains.
Cleavage is absent.
Fracture is uneven or conchoidal.
Specific Gravity is approximately 2.9 - 3.0 (average for translucent minerals)
Streak is white.
Other Characteristics: Slightly soluble in water.
Associated Minerals are anhydrite, gypsum, halite and other evaporite minerals.
Notable Occurrences include Yorkshire, England; Strassfurt, Germany; Bolivia; Chactaw Salt Dome, Louisiana and Otis, California, USA and France.
Best Field Indicators are crystal habit, color, associations, locality, lack of cleavage and the high hardness.

Colors: to colorless and with pale tints of yellow, green and blue
Hardness: 7 to 7.5


Borax

Luster is vitreous.
Transparency crystals are transparent to translucent.
Crystal System is monoclinic; 2/m
Crystal Habits include the blocky to prismatic crystals with a nearly square cross section. Also massive and as crusts.
Cleavage is perfect in one direction.
Fracture is conchoidal.
Specific Gravity is approximately 1.7 (very light)
Streak is white.
Associated Minerals are calcite, halite, hanksite, colemanite, ulexite and other borates.
Other Characteristics: a sweet alkaline taste, alters to chalky white tincalconite with dehydration.
Notable Occurrences include Trona, Boron, Death Valley and other California localities; Andes Mountains; Turkey and Tibet.
Best Field Indicators are crystal habit, color, associations, locality, density and hardness

Colors: white to clear
Hardness: 2 to 2.5


Bornite

A metallic mineral with a purple tarnish.
Is associated with peace, social justice, goodness, fairness, truth and equality.
It fosters caring on a worldwide scale, teaching us to be concerned with the welfare of all beings on earth.

Luster is metallic.
Transparency: Crystals are opaque.
Crystal System is isometric; 4/m bar 3 2/m above 228 degrees celsius but below this temperature its structure becomes less symmetrical possibly tetragonal; bar 4 2/m.
Crystal Habits include rare distorted cubes and even more rarely dodecahedrons and octahedrons.
Most common habit is massive or disseminated grains.
Cleavage is very poor, octahedral.
Fracture is conchoidal.
Specific Gravity is approximately 4.9 - 5.3 (average for metallic minerals)
Streak is a gray black.
Other Characteristics: The tarnish that occurs on fresh surfaces can form in only hours and will become black over time.
Associated Minerals are magnetite, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, covellite, pyrrhotite, pyrite and other sulfides.
Notable Occurences include Bristol, Connecticut, Butte, Montana, Plumas Co., Colorado and Superior, Arizona, USA; Cornwall, England; Rhineland, Germany; Tsumeb, Namibia; South Africa; Morocco; Bolivia; Chile; Peru and Mexico.
Best Field Indicators are lack of good crystals, tarnish, streak, color of fresh surfaces and associations.

Colors: brown to black with a typical purplish-bluish tarnish, a reddish bronze color on freshly broken surfaces
Hardness: 3


Botswana Agate

This agate is used in oxygen therapy and smoke inhalation.
It is also used for protection, it increases physical strength, and enhances stamina and endurance.

Boulangerite

Luster is either metallic or silky.
Transparency: Crystals are opaque.
Crystal System: Monoclinic; 2/m
Crystal Habits include dense or sparse felted masses of acicular crystals.
Also in fibrous and compact plumose (feathery) masses.
Cleavage is good in one direction parallel to the length.
Fracture is uneven.
Specific Gravity is 5.8 - 6.2 (heavier than average for metallic minerals)
Streak is gray to brown. v Associated Minerals include pyrite, sphalerite, galena, siderite, quartz and arsenopyrite.
Other Characteristics: Crystals are flexible.
Notable Occurrences include Trepca, in the former Yugoslavia; Pribram, in the former Czechoslovakia; Sala, Sweden; Hunan, China; Harz, Germany; Baja California, Mexico and at several locations in Idaho, Montana, Colorado, Washington and Nevada, USA.
Best Field Indicators are crystal habit, flexibility, associations, color and luster

Colors: blue lead gray to gray
Hardness: 2.5


Bournonite

Luster is metallic.
Transparency crystals are opaque.
Crystal System is orthorhombic; 2/m2/m2/m
Crystal Habits include tabular to prismatic crystals.
Twinning is common and if repeated forms flat wheel shaped crystals called cog wheels. Also massive and granular.
Cleavage is poor in one direction.
Fracture is subconchoidal.
Specific Gravity is approximately 5.8 (above average for metallic minerals)
Streak is black.
Associated Minerals are siderite, fluorite, galena, sphalerite, calcite and pyrite.
Other Characteristics: although the luster can be bright, bournonite develops a dull tarnish.
Crystals are usually striated on their sides which produces the "teeth" of the cog wheel.
Notable Occurrences include England; California, USA; Mexico; Peru and Australia.
Best Field Indicators are crystal habit (especially twinning), color and density.

Colors: silver gray or black
Hardness: 2.5 to 3


Brass

Luster is metallic.
Transparency: Specimens are opaque.
Crystal System is isometric.
Crystal Habits are limited to tiny grains.
Cleavage is absent.
Specific Gravity is 8.4 - 8.7 (man-made brass)
Streak is brassy brown.
Notable Occurrences are limited to two localities in Siberia, Russia; Tolbachik Volcano, Kamchatka and Vol'sk-Vym Ridge, Middle Timan.
Best Field Indicator is color, locality, density and rarity.

Colors: yellow to brassy yellow


Brazilianite

Brazilianite is a very rare healing stone from Brazil.
It is used in the treatment of disorders of the nervous system, brain, and spinal cord.
This stone is also used to treat nerve tissue damage caused by pollution.
Brazilianite also helps solve psychological problems by giving the wearer positive energy.

Luster is vitreous.
Transparency: Crystals are transparent to translucent.
Crystal System: Monoclinic; 2/m
Crystal Habits include complex short prismatic and wedge shaped crystals that seem to lack any symmetry.
Crystals are very common, and massive examples are almost unknown.
Cleavage is perfect in one direction.
Fracture is conchoidal.
Specific Gravity is approximately 3.0 (average for translucent minerals)
Streak is white.
Other Characteristics: Crystals are striated and the index of refraction is 1.60 - 1.62
Associated Minerals are quartz, feldspars, muscovite and primary and secondary phosphates associated with phosphate rich pegmatites.
Notable Occurrences include Conselheiro Pena and other mines in Minas Gerias, Brazil and Smith Mine, Newport, New Hampshire.
Best Field Indicators are color, crystal habits, low density and cleavage.

Colors: yellowish to light green Hardness: 5.5 to 6


Brecciated Jasper

Brecciated Jasper (sometimes spelled brecceated jasper or bracciated jasper) enhances organization and helps to create relaxation.
It is used in dowsing activities.
This stone helps align the chakras and balances yin and yang, as well as the physical and the emotional components of the self.
It is also a stone of protection, and is used in astral travel.
Brecciated jasper encourages attunement and communication with animals.
It brings happiness and a healthy outlook on life while it also eases stress.
Brecciated jasper can help increase physical endurance and ward off dehydration.
It is also a good stone for grounding and is associated with the root chakra.
Brecciated Jasper is sometimes referred to as Poppy Jasper
Poppy Jasper is the reddish variation of bracciated jasper.
It enhances organizational skills, increases relaxation, and gives a sense of wholeness.
This stone is also occasionally used to assist in dowsing activities.

Brochanite

Luster is vitreous to pearly on cleavage surfaces.
Transparency: Crystals are transparent to translucent.
Crystal System is monoclinic; 2/m.
Crystal Habits include acicular or fibrous crystals aggregated into coatings and tufts as well as small tabular crystals and reniform, massive or granular specimens.
Terminations tend to be rounded or dome-like.
Twinning is common and gives an orthorhombic look to larger crystals.
Cleavage is perfect in one direction nearly perpendicular to length.
Fracture is uneven.
Specific Gravity is approximately 3.9+ (above average for translucent minerals)
Streak is green.
Other Characteristics: Does not effervesce in hydrochloric acid.
Associated Minerals are limonite, cuprite, chrysocolla, cyanotrichite, malachite, langite, posnjakite and azurite.
Notable Occurrences include numerous locations in Chile; Ural Mountains, Russia; England; Italy; Romania; Zaire and several locations in Arizona, Nevada, California, New Mexico and Utah, USA.
Best Field Indicators are crystal habit, associations, hardness, cleavage, non-reaction to hydrochloric acid and color.

Colors: bright emerald green or dark green to almost black
Hardness: 3.5 to 4


Bronze

Is associated with relaxation, serenity, calmness.
Helps promote a laid-back attitude.

Bronzite

Bronzite is called a "Stone of Focused Action" and a "Stone of Courtesy".
It is used to ascertain certainty and with taking control of situations.
Bronzite helps dispel uncertainty.
It is a good grounding stone.
Physically, Bronzite is used in the assimilation of iron, in lessening muscular tension, and in dispelling restlessness caused by emotional and psycho-physical ailments.
Also, Bronzite brings inner peace, removes stress, protects against depressive moods and works favorably on the psyche.

Colors: Bronze colors with silvery traces
Hardness: 5 to 6


Brookite

Luster is adamantine to submetallic.
Transparency crystals are opaque.
Crystal System is orthorhombic; 2/m 2/m 2/m
Crystal Habits include the typical tabular to platy crystals with a pseudohexagonal outline.
Magnet Cove specimens tend to be more equant with complex facets.
Cleavage is poor prismatically and in the basal direction.
Fracture is subconchoidal and uneven.
Specific Gravity is 3.9 - 4.1 (average for metallic minerals)
Streak is light brown to white.
Associated Minerals include anatase, rutile, quartz, feldspars, chalcopyrite, hematite and sphene.
Notable Occurrences include Magnet Cove, Arkansas, Butte, Montana, Somerville, Massachusetts and Ellenville, New York, USA; Eicham, Austria; Tremadoc, Wales, England; Ural Mountains, Russia and at St. Gotthard, Switzerland.
Best Field Indicators are crystal habit, luster, density, streak, associations and locality.

Colors: dark brown to greenish black
Hardness: 5.5 to 6


Brucite

Luster is vitreous or waxy; cleavage surfaces have a pearly luster.
Transparency Crystals are translucent and rarely transparent.
Crystal System is trigonal; bar 3 2/m
Crystal Habit is typically in flattened tabular crystals with rare rhombohedral terminations.
Also found in lamellar and fibrous aggregates and as foliated masses.
Brucite has been known to pseudomorph crystals of periclase. Cleavage is perfect in one direction, basal.
Fracture is uneven.
Specific Gravity is 2.4 (slightly below average)
Streak is white.
Other Characteristics: cleavage flakes and fibers are flexible but not elastic.
Associated Minerals are calcite, wollastonite, nepheline, talc, aragonite, serpentine, chromite, dolomite, magnesite, periclase and other magnesium minerals.
Notable Occurrences include Unst, Shetland Islands, England; Aesbestos, Wakefield and Black Lake, Quebec, Canada; Accost, Italy; Brewster, New York, Wood's Mine, Texas, Gabby, Nevada, Crested, California and Barks Co., Pennsylvania, USA.
Best Field Indicators are crystal habit, luster (especially on cleavage surfaces), lack of soapy or greasy feel and flexible but inelastic flakes and fibers.

Colors: white or colorless with shades of gray, blue and green
Hardness: 2 to 2.5


Buergerite

Luster is vitreous.
Transparency: Crystals are translucent to opaque.
Crystal System is Trigonal; 3 m
Crystal Habit is typically elongated three sided prisms.
The terminations can be either a simple to complex trigonal pyramid or a flat basal face.
The prism faces are striated lengthwise.
In cross section, all tourmalines will appear predominantly triangular in shape with some crystals showing a hexagon.
Doubly terminated crystals are hemimorphic meaning that the two ends of the crystal are not exactly alike.
Massive specimens can also be found. Cleavage is absent although there is basal parting.
Fracture is uneven to conchoidal.
Specific Gravity is 3.3+ (slightly heavier than average)
Streak: Off white.
Other Characteristics: Pleochroic and piezoelectric.
Associated Minerals include those commonly found in volcanic rocks.
Notable Occurrences is mostly limited to San Luis Potasi, Mexico.
Best Field Indicators are crystal habit, triangular cross-section, locality, environment, color and hardness.

Colors: dark brown
Hardness: 7 to 7.5


Burbankite

Luster is vitreous to dull or silky.
Transparency: crystals are transparent to translucent. v Crystal System is hexagonal.
Crystal Habits include small prismatic six and twelve sided crystals with pyramidal or pinacoidal terminations.
Also as compact spherical aggregates and fibrous masses.
Cleavage is distinct to imperfect in six directions (prismatic).
Fracture is uneven.
Hardness is 3.5 to 4.
Specific Gravity is 3.5 (above average)
Streak is white.
Other Characteristics: Some specimens have been known to fluoresce and rarely to exhibit an unusual color change from green (in daylight) to brown (in incandescent light). Index of refraction is 1.615 - 1.627.
Associated Minerals are albite, calcite, donnayite, ilmenite, paranatrolite, pyrophanite, pyrite, sphalerite, astrophyllite, molybdenite, biotite, rutile, tetranatrolite, ewaldite, hilairite, anatase, andradite, barylite, catapleiite, cordylite, ancylite-(Ce), zircon, barite, analcime, synchysite-(Ce), natrolite and aegirine.
Notable Occurrences are limited to Mont Saint-Hilaire, Quebec and Chapman Lake, Ontario, Canada; Khibina, Kola Peninsula, Russia and the type locality Vermiculite Prospects, Big Sandy Creek, Hill County, Montana, USA.
Best Field Indicators: crystal habit, color, luster and locality.

Colors: pale yellow, pale orange, beige, white and colorless with some color zoning
Hardness: 3.5 to 4


Buttgenbachite

Luster is vitreous.
Transparency: Specimens are translucent to transparent.
Crystal System is hexagonal; 6 2 2.
Crystal Habits include acicular to fibrous crystals arranged in tufts, layers or radial aggregates.
Cleavage is absent.
Fracture is uneven.
Specific Gravity is approximately 3.4 - 3.5 (slightly above average for non-metallic minerals).
Streak is blue.
Associated Minerals include quartz and copper minerals.
Notable Occurrence is limited to the Likasi, Shaba, now of the Congo and South Comobabi Mountains, Pima County, Arizona, USA.
Best Field Indicators are crystal habit, color, associations and locality.

Colors: deep blue
Hardness: 3


Bustamite

Bustamite has an energetic ability to remove and clear energy blockages.
It is a very powerful stone for all types of energy work.
It can remove an energy block from a person, a particular chakra, an environment, or a situation.
It is also excellent for meditation and can help one go into deeper meditative states.
It is also used in dream work.
Bustamite is used often in ceremonies and initiations.
Emotionally, bustamite helps one feel safe, and is very useful in removing anxiety and stress.
Physically, bustamite has been used to heal and improve circulation, lungs, skin, nails, hair, and stress related disorders.

Bytownite

Luster is vitreous to dull if weathered..
Transparency crystals are translucent to opaque and only sometimes transparent.
Crystal System is triclinic; bar 1
Crystal Habits include blocky, or tabular crystals.
Rarely are free crystals seen but they have a nearly rectangular or square cross-section with slanted dome and pinacoid terminations.
Twinning is almost universal in all plagioclases. Crystals can be twinned according to the Albite, Carlsbad, Manebach and Baveno laws.
Bytownite is usually found as grains in gabbros and in compact masses.
Cleavage is perfect in one and good in another direction forming nearly right angled prisms.
Fracture is conchoidal.
Specific Gravity is approximately 2.74-2.76 (average)
Streak is white.
Associated Minerals are biotite, hornblende and pyroxenes.
Other Characteristics: index of refraction is 1.565 to 1.585. Lamellar twinning may cause a grooved effect on crystal and cleavage surfaces that appear as striations.
Notable Occurrences include Ottawa (formally Bytown), Canada; Scotland and South Africa.
Best Field Indicators are occurrence, twinning striations, density and index of refraction.

Colors: white, gray or colorless but can be pale shades of other colors
Hardness: 6 to 6.5


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